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Classification of Steel



Besides iron and carbon, the main elements of steel are silicon, manganese, sulfur and phosphorus.


The classification methods of steel are various, and the main methods are as follows:

 

1. Classification by quality

(1) Ordinary steel (P ≤ 0.045%, s ≤ 0.050%)

(2) High quality steel (P, s ≤ 0.035%)

(3) High quality steel (P ≤ 0.035%, s ≤ 0.030%)

 

2. Classification by chemical composition

(1) Carbon steel: A. low carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25%); B. medium carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25-0.60%); C. high carbon steel (C ≤ 0.60%).

(2) Alloy steel: A. low alloy steel (total alloy element content ≤ 5%); B. medium alloy steel (total alloy element content > 5-10%); C. high alloy steel (total alloy element content > 10%).

 

3. Classification by forming method

(1) Forged steel; (2) cast steel; (3) hot rolled steel; (4) cold drawn steel.

 

4. Classification by metallographic structure

(1) Annealed: A. hypoeutectoid steel (ferrite + pearlite); B. eutectoid steel (pearlite); C. hypereutectoid steel (pearlite + cementite); D. ledeburite steel (pearlite + cementite).

(2) Normalized: A. pearlitic steel; B. bainitic steel; C. martensitic steel; D. austenitic steel.

(3) Having no or partial transformation

 

5. Classification by application

(1) Construction and engineering steel: A. ordinary carbon structural steel; B. low alloy structural steel; C. reinforced steel.

(2) Structural steel:

a. Mechanical manufacturing steel: (a) quenching and tempering structural steel; (b) surface hardening structural steel: including carburizing steel, ammoniating steel and surface quenching steel; (c) easy cutting structural steel; (d) cold plastic forming steel: including cold stamping steel and cold heading steel.

b. Spring steel

c. Bearing steel

(3) Tool steel: A. carbon tool steel; B. alloy tool steel; C. high speed tool steel.

(4) Special performance steel: A. stainless and acid resistant steel; B. heat resistant steel: including anti-oxidation steel, hot strength steel and air valve steel; C. electric heating alloy steel; D. wear resistant steel; e. low temperature steel; F. electrical steel.

(5) Professional steel, such as bridge steel, ship steel, boiler steel, pressure vessel steel, agricultural machinery steel, etc.

 

6. Comprehensive classification

(1) Ordinary steel

a. Carbon structural steel: (a) Q195; (b) Q215 (a, b); (c) Q235 (a, B, c); (d) q255 (a, b); (E) Q275.

b. Low alloy structural steel

c. General structural steels for specific applications

(2) High quality steel (including high quality steel)

a. Structural steel: (a) high quality carbon structural steel; (b) alloy structural steel; (c) spring steel; (d) easy cutting steel; (E) bearing steel; (f) high quality structural steel for specific purposes.

b. Tool steel: (a) carbon tool steel; (b) alloy tool steel; (c) high speed tool steel.

c. Special performance steel: (a) stainless acid resistant steel; (b) heat resistant steel; (c) electrothermal alloy steel; (d) electrical steel; (E) high manganese wear-resistant steel.

 

7. Classification by smelting method

(1) According to the type of furnace

a. Converter steel: (a) acid converter steel; (b) basic converter steel. Or (a) bottom blown converter steel; (b) side blown converter steel; (c) top blown converter steel.

b. EAF steel: (a) EAF steel; (b) electroslag furnace steel; (c) induction furnace steel; (d) vacuum consumable furnace steel; (E) electron beam furnace steel.

(2) According to deoxidation degree and pouring system

a. The results show that there are three kinds of steels: rimmed steel; B. semi killed steel; C. killed steel; D. special killed steel.


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