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Common metal materials and their characteristics in mechanical and mold processing

1. #45 -- high quality carbon structural steel, is the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel.

Main features: the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability and easy to crack when water quenched. Small parts should be quenched and tempered, and large parts should be normalized. Application examples: mainly used for manufacturing high strength moving parts, such as turbine impeller, compressor piston. Shaft, gear, rack, worm, etc. Attention should be paid to preheating before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.


2. Q235A (A3 steel) - the most commonly used carbon structural steel.

Main features: high plasticity, toughness and weldability, cold stamping performance, and certain strength, good cold bending performance. Application examples: widely used in parts and welding structures with general requirements. Such as tension rod, connecting rod, pin, shaft, screw, nut, ferrule, bracket, frame, building structure, bridge, etc.


3. 40Cr -- one of the most widely used steels, belongs to alloy structural steel.

Main features: After quenching and tempering, it has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low temperature impact toughness, low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, high fatigue strength can be obtained when oil cooling. When water cooling, parts with complex shape are easy to crack, and cold bending plasticity is medium. After tempering or quenching and tempering, the machinability is good, but the weldability is not good, and cracks are easy to occur. Preheat to 100 ~ 150 ℃ before welding It can also be used for carbonitriding and high frequency surface quenching. Application example: after quenching and tempering, it is used in manufacturing High speed and medium load parts, such as gear, shaft, worm, spline shaft and thimble sleeve of machine tools, are used to manufacture parts with high hardness and wear resistance after quenching and high frequency surface quenching, such as gears, shafts, spindles, crankshafts, sleeves, pins, connecting rods, screws and nuts, intake valves, etc. after quenching and tempering at medium temperature, they are used to manufacture heavy load and medium speed impact parts, such as oil pump After quenching and low temperature tempering, they are used to manufacture heavy load, low impact and wear-resistant parts, such as worm, spindle, shaft, sleeve ring, etc. transmission parts with large size and high low-temperature impact toughness are manufactured at carbonitriding place, such as shaft and gear.


4. HT150 gray cast iron

Application examples: gear box, machine bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley, bearing cover, etc


5. #35 -- common materials of various standard parts and fasteners

Main features: proper strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity and fair weldability. Local upsetting and wire drawing can be carried out in cold state. Low hardenability, application after normalizing or quenching and tempering application example: suitable for manufacturing small section parts, can bear larger load parts: such as crankshaft, lever, connecting rod, hook and ring, various standard parts and fasteners



Common examples of spring steel application: various flat and round springs, cushion springs and spring springs of small sizes can also be made into spring rings, valve springs, clutch springs, brake springs, cold coil coil springs, snap springs, etc.


7. 0Cr18Ni9

The most commonly used stainless steel (304 in the United States, SUS304 in Japan) features and applications: it is widely used as stainless and heat-resistant steel, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, and industrial equipment


8. Cr12 -- common cold working die steel (American steel grade D3, Japanese steel grade skd1)

Characteristics and application: Cr12 Steel is a widely used cold working die steel, which belongs to the ledeburite steel with high carbon and high chromium. The steel has good hardenability and good wear resistance; because the carbon content of Cr12 Steel is as high as 2.3%, it has poor impact toughness, easy brittle fracture, and easy to form heterogeneous eutectic carbide; because of its good wear resistance, Cr12 Steel is mostly used to manufacture cold stamping die, punch, blanking die, cold heading die, punch and die of cold extrusion die with low impact load Drilling sleeve, gauge, drawing die, stamping die, rubbing plate, drawing die and cold pressing die for powder metallurgy, etc



Characteristics and application of cold working die steel imported from Japan: high strength and Toughness Cold Work Die steel, Japanese Datong special steel (plant) manufacturer's steel grade. After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness and good wire cutting performance. For precision cold stamping die, drawing die, thread rolling die, cold blanking die, punch, etc


10. DCCr12MoV 

Wear resistant chromium steel made in China. Compared with Cr12 Steel, the carbon content is lower, and the carbide inhomogeneity is improved by adding Mo and V. Mo can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability, V can refine grain size and increase toughness. This steel has high hardenability, can be completely quenched when the cross section is less than 400mm, and can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance at 300 ~ 400 ℃. Compared with Cr12, it has higher toughness and smaller volume change during quenching, It also has high wear resistance and good comprehensive mechanical properties. Therefore, it can manufacture various dies with large cross-section, complex shape and large impact, such as ordinary drawing die, punching die, punching die, blanking die, trimming die, rolling die, drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold cutting cutter, circular saw, standard tools, measuring tools, etc.


11. SKD11 

Tough chromium steel. Produced by Hitachi in Japan, the casting structure of the steel is improved and the grain size is refined. The toughness and wear resistance of SKD11 are higher than that of Cr12MoV. The service life of the die is prolonged


12. D2

High carbon and high chromium cold working steel, made in USA, has high hardenability, hardenability, wear resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing, and small heat treatment deformation. It is suitable to manufacture various cold working dies, tools and measuring tools with high precision and long service life, such as drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold shear knife, etc.


13. SKD11 (SLD) 

High chromium steel with no deformation toughness. It is produced by Hitachi in Japan. With the increase of Mo and V content in the steel, the casting structure of the steel is improved, the grain size is refined and the morphology of carbide is improved. Therefore, the strength and toughness (bending strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) of this steel is higher than that of skd1 and D2, and the wear resistance is also increased, It is proved by practice that the service life of this steel die is longer than that of Cr12MoV. It is often used to manufacture dies with high requirements, such as drawing die, impact grinding wheel die, etc.


14. DC53

High toughness and high chromium steel, produced by Datong Zhuzhou, Japan. The hardness of heat treatment is higher than SKD11. After tempering at high temperature (520-530), the hardness can reach 62-63hrc, DC53 is better than SKD11 in strength and wear resistance. The toughness of DC53 is twice that of SKD11. The toughness of DC53 is less than that of SKD11. The toughness of DC53 is less than that of SKD11. The service life of DC53 is greatly increased. The residual stress is small. The residual stress is reduced by turning back at high temperature. Because the crack and deformation are restrained after wire cutting, the machinability and abrasiveness are better than SKD11. It is used in precision stamping die, cold forging, deep drawing die, etc



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